A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME ON STRESS REDUCTION TECHNIQUES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS AGED 15 - 18 YEARS STAYING IN A SELECTED HOSTEL AT CHIDAMBARAM.
Key words: stress, structured-teaching programme, stress-reduction techniques, and hostel.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
“A study to assess the effectiveness of structured-teaching programme on stress-reduction techniques among adolescent girls aged 15-18 years staying in a selected hostel at Chidambaram”
v To assess the pre-test knowledge regarding stress-reduction techniques among adolescent girls aged 15-18 years staying in a selected hostel at Chidambaram.
v To evaluate the effectiveness of structured-teaching programme regarding stress-reduction techniques among adolescent girls aged 15-18 years staying in a selected hostel at Chidambaram.
v To associate the selected demographic variables such as age, religion, educational status, occupation of the parents, educational status of the parents and number of siblings with the knowledge regarding stress-reduction techniques.
“Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizens” they need healthy environment for all round development”
"Nothing gives one person so much advantage over another as to remain always cool and unruffled under all circumstances”
-Thomas Jefferson (1988)
-Thomas Jefferson (1988)
Thomas (1988) stated that stress and anxiety in children and teenagers are just as prevalent as in adults. Stressed out and negligent parents, high expectations in academic or other performances, abused or deprived childhood, growing up tensions and demand for domestic responsibility are the main causes of childhood and teen stress. Parents, who are not emotionally available for their children or lack of positive coping mechanisms themselves often, spur stress in their offspring. Stressed children show signs of emotional disabilities, aggressive behavior, shyness, social phobia and often lack interest in otherwise enjoyable activities. Research tells us that children, who are forced to live on prematurely adult levels, sometimes become oppositional to follow the parent’s rules (or those of society). Such children tend to respond to stressors with aggression and indignation. Many teenagers tend to become nonconformists and fall prey to teenage depression in response to a variety of growing up anxieties. However, stress- induced fears and anxiety in children adversely affect the children’s performances at various levels.
The one group pre-test and post-test design was adopted to assess the effectiveness of structured-teaching programme on stress reduction techniques among adolescent girls aged 15 - 18 years. The General System Theory was adopted for conceptual frame work.
A total of 60 adolescent girls staying in the Nandhanar girl’s hostel were selected by using simple random sampling techniques.
The instrument used for the study was a structured-questionnaire which consists of two sections. The first section consists of the demographic variables of the adolescent girls and the second section consists of 50 closed-ended questions to assess the knowledge regarding stress-reduction techniques.
The structured-teaching programme on stress-reduction techniques was provided through Lap top for a period of 30 minutes. A post-test was given after 7 days. The data were analyzed using the descriptive and inferential statistics.
The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compute the data. The statistics showed the following results:
In pre-test more than half of the adolescent girls (60%) had inadequate knowledge, 35% had moderately adequate knowledge and only 5% had adequate knowledge on stress-reduction techniques.
Post-test revealed that after attending the LCD teaching programme 18.33% had moderately adequate knowledge and 81.67% had adequate knowledge and none had inadequate knowledge on stress-reduction techniques.
The effectiveness of the LCD teaching programme was statistically tested by paired ‘t’ test value (24.44) and the result was found to be significant at P < 0.001 level. It shows that there was an improvement in the level of knowledge in post-test when compared to pre-test score.
Result revealed that 30 (50%) of adolescent girls had inadequate knowledge, 25 (41.6%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge, and only 5 (8.4%) had adequate knowledge on introduction, definition, anatomy and physiology in pre-test. In post-test 5 (8.4%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge, 55 (91.6%) had adequate knowledge and none of them had inadequate knowledge.
Result revealed that 39 (65%) of adolescent girls had inadequate knowledge on sources of stress and clinical features of stress in pre-test. In post-test 18 (30%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge, 41 (68.3%) had adequate knowledge.
Result revealed that 45 (75%) of adolescent girls had inadequate knowledge on stress management in pre-test. In post-test 14 (23.3%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge, 45 (75%) had adequate knowledge and only 1 (1.7%) had inadequate knowledge.
Result revealed that 37 (61.7%) of adolescent girls had inadequate knowledge on complication and prevention of stress in pre-test. In post-test 8 (13.3%) of them had moderately adequate knowledge, 49 (81.7%) had adequate knowledge and only 3 (5%) had inadequate knowledge.
Thus the difference in the level of knowledge in various aspects of stress-reduction techniques was confirmed by Paired ‘t’ test value (23.09, 11.59, 8.89 and 16.68), which was significant at p< 0.001 level. It shows that the LCD teaching programme was very effective in improving the knowledge level of the adolescent girls in all aspects of stress- reduction techniques.
Association between the selected demographic variables and dependent variables was analyzed by paired “t” test and kruskal wallis test. There was no significant association between the demographic variables (Age, religion, educational status, occupation of the parents, educational status of the parents and number of siblings) and level of knowledge on stress-reduction techniques.
The structured-teaching Programme significantly increased the knowledge among adolescent girls regarding stress-reduction techniques. The results demonstrated that a structured-teaching with appropriate audio-visual aids (LCD) will enhance the knowledge of adolescent girls regarding stress-reduction techniques.
The knowledge score of the adolescent girls was inadequate before STP. After the LCD teaching programme 18.33% had moderately adequate knowledge and 81.67% had adequate knowledge.
The effectiveness of LCD teaching programme was statistically tested by paired ‘t’ value and the result found to be significant at p<0.001 level.
There was no significant relationship between demographic variables and pre-test knowledge of subjects on stress-reduction techniques.
The nursing implication included the specific suggestion for nursing practice, nursing education, nursing administration and nursing research.
1. Stress management program can be extended to all the children who are admitted in the pediatric ward.
2. Early recognition of depression and anxiety disorder can reduce the high risk behavior of stressful person like suicidal ideation.
3. Education program can be conducted to the parents of stressful children to help them to cope with stress.
4. The nurses can create an opportunity for the adolescent to express their feelings and can provide opportunity to relax.
1. Nurse-educator needs to prepare nursing students to obtain the skill in observing stressful behavior of the children.
2. Student nurses must be motivated to provide counseling to stressful children to cope with stressful situation.
3. The curriculum should explain the mental problems faced by the children who are staying in the hostel and their management.
4. Stress management program can be conducted to school children like yoga, deep breathing exercises etc.
5. Community students must organize health education program on stress management for adolescent girls at schools and hostels.
6. Organize educational program to teacher to create awareness about mental problems faced by students in the school and hostel.
1. Hostel administration should take proper step to reduce the stress-level of the students who are staying in the hostel.
2. School administration should give special consideration to the students who are staying in the hostel.
3. Nursing administration should conduct educational program on stress reduction techniques in the school and hostel.
1. Generalization of the study result can be made by further replication of large samples.
2. Future research should focus on interventions that decrease the level of stress of the children’s.
3. Future research should focus on factors that influence the mental health of the children who are staying in the hostel.
4. Comparative study can be done on the efficacy of individual education and education by mass media on stress management.
5. A qualitative study can be carried out to assess personal factors which lead children to practice stress management.
1. A similar study can be conducted in a large number of samples at different hostel to validate and generalize the findings.
2. A similar study can be conducted among male population who is staying in hostel.
3. A similar study may be done as an experimental study between control and experimental group.
4. A study can be conducted to assess the attitude of school children about hostel life.
5. A study can be conducted to assess the practice of stress reduction techniques in the hostel.
6. A study can be conducted to assess the factors which influence a subject’s likelihood of attending teaching programme on yoga and meditation.
7. A comparative study can be conducted to assess the stress level between school children staying in government hostel and private hostel.
8. A study can be conducted to assess the stress and its health effect on school children.
9. A study can be conducted to assess the stress and coping of physically handicapped children who staying in the physical rehabilitation center.
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